|Causative organism||Chlamydia trachomatis|
|Incubation period||2-60 days|
|How far to trace back||6 months|
|Usual testing method||Nucleic acid amplification|
Asymptomatic (urogenital, anorectal, pharyngeal) in over 80% of people
Mucopurulent cervical discharge easily induced endocervical bleeding, urethritis with a mucoid or watery urethral discharge, dysuria.
PID- Pelvic pain, abnormal bleeding patterns (intermenstrual bleeding or post-coital bleeding), dyspareunia, fever, nausea, vomiting (see PID)
Epididymo-orchitis-scrotal pain, swelling, erythema (See Epididymo-orchitis)
Ano-Rectal - Anal discharge/pain, or bleeding
Eye - conjunctivitis
Throat - pharyngiitis
|Likelihood of transmission per act of condomless intercourse||<5%|
|Likelihood of long-term sexual partner being infected||About two-thirds of partners will be infected|
|Protective effect of condoms||High|
|Transmission by oral sex||Low|
|Duration of potential infectivity||
Urogenital infection: cervical infection can be sustained for years if left untreated, but on average 50% will clear a urogenital infection within 12 months.
Penile infection can be infected for months.
Anorectal infection: Can last for over 12 months if left untreated.
Limited data on duration of infectiousness overtime
Cervical infection: PID/chronic pelvic pain/ infertility/ ectopic pregnancy
Penile infection: Epididymo-orchitis
Pregnancy and infants: Neonatal pneumonitis and conjunctivitis. Preterm labour and low birth weight.
Enhanced HIV transmission
|Direct benefit of detection and treatment of contacts||Reduces ongoing transmission and re-infection in index cases. Cervical re-infection substantially increases the risk of developing PID|
|Usual management of contacts||
Counselling, clinical examination and testing for chlamydia.
People presenting as asymptomatic contacts of chlamydia should be tested and advised to await results. Consider presumptive treatment if there has been sexual contact within the past 2 weeks or when the person’s individual circumstances mean later treatment may not occur. As most people will test negative, routine presumptive treatment often leads to unnecessary antibiotic use.
Provision of patient-delivered partner therapy (PDPT) if appropriate.
|Contact tracing priority||High|
Genital C. trachomatis infection is notifiable in all Australian states and territories by doctors or laboratories.
Genital C. trachomatis infection is not notifiable in New Zealand currently but voluntary laboratory notification occurs from most regions
Page last updated October 2022